Τρίτη, 1 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις ὡς εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου

υπὸ Ἰωάννου Καραδημητροπούλου
 
Περίληψις
Ἡ δημιουγία τοῦ σύμπαντος ἀπησχόλησεν τοὺς πολιτισμούς, ἐν οἷς, καὶ τὸν Ἑλληνικόν. Ἡ ἐλαχίστη διασωθεῖσα γραμματεία τῶν Ἑλλήνων σοφῶν εἶναι ἀρκετὴ διὰ νὰ μᾶς μυήσῃ εἰς τὸν προβληματισμὸν τῶν προγόνων μας. Ὁ μύστης Ἡσίοδος εἰς τὸ ἔργον του Θεογονία περιγράφει, ἐντὸς ἐλαχίστων στίχων, τὰ γεγονότα περὶ τὴν δημιουργίαν τοῦ σύμπαντος. Ἡ σύγχρονος ἀστροφυσικὴ θεωρεῖ ὅτι τὸ σύμπαν ἐδημιουργήθη συνεπείᾳ τῆς Μεγάλης Ἐκρήξεως [1]  ὑπερβολικῶς συμπεπυκνομένης καὶ ὑπερθέρμου μάζης. Ἔκτοτε, τὸ σύμπαν ἀεὶ διαστέλλεται. Μυσταγωγικὴ προσέγγισις καὶ μυητικὴ ἀνάλυσις ἐπιτρέπει νὰ διακρίνωμεν τὰς θέσεις τῆς συγχρόνου ἀστροφυσικῆς διατυπωμένας εἰς τοὺς στίχους 116 – 128 τῆς Θεογονίας τοῦ Ἡσιόδου. Ὁ μύστης Ἡσίοδος παραδίδει τὰς γνώσεις του, φιλότητι διαμορφωμένας, πρὸς τὰς συγχρόνους πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς μετέπειτα γενεὰς. Ὁ ἴδιος ἀναφέρει ὅτι συνέγραψεν τὴν Θεογονίαν ὑπὸ τὴν θεόπνευστον καθηδήγησιν καὶ ἀφήγησιν τῶν Μουσῶν, θυγατέρων τοῦ Διὸς, πατρὸς Θεῶν τε καὶ ἀνθρώπων.
1     Εἰσαγωγὴ
Ἐκ τῶν διατυπωθεισῶν θεωριῶν περὶ τῆς δημιουργίας τοῦ σύμπαντος, εὐρείας ἀποδοχῆς, μεταξὺ τῶν ἀστροφυσικῶν, ἀπολαμβάνει ἡ θεωρία τῆς μεγάλης ἐκρήξεως[1]. Ὁ Ἡσίοδος, εἰς τὸ ἔπος «Θεογονία», περιγράφει, ποιητικῶς, τὴν δημιουργίαν τοῦ σύμπαντος. Ἡ ταυτότης ἀπόψεων ἀστροφυσικῆς καὶ Θεογονίας, περὶ τὰ γεγονότα τῆς μεγάλης ἐκρήξεως, δὲν δύναται νὰ συνιστᾶ καὶ δὲν συνιστᾶ σύμπτωσιν, δι’ ὅ καὶ προκαλεῖται ἡ κρίσις ἑκάστου ἐξ ἡμῶν.
Ἡ περιγραφὴ τῆς Θεογονίας ἀρχίζει ἐκ τοῦ στίχου 116. Οἱ πρῶτοι 115 στίχοι ἀναφέρονται, κυρίως, εἰς τὴν ἱεροτελεστίαν καθαρμοῦ τῶν Μουσῶν, ὑμνῳδίαν τῶν Θεῶν καὶ τήν, κατ’ ἐντολὴν τοῦ Διὸς, μύησιν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου εἰς τὰς Ἀπολλωνίας τέχνας μουσικῆς καὶ ποιήσεως ἵνα ὑμνήσῃ, ἀφηγούμενος θεοπνεύστως, τὰ παρελθόντα καὶ τὰ μέλοντα:
Ὁ Ἡσίοδος θεωρεῖται αφ’ ἑνός ὡς ὁ δεύτερος τῇ τάξει ἐπικὸς ποιητὴς τῆς ἀρχαιότητος καὶ ἀφ’ ἑτέρου ὅτι ἀντλεῖ τὰ θέματα ἐκ τῆς φαντασίας(;) καὶ τῶν ἐμπειριῶν του! Τὸν χαρακτηρισμὸν τοῦ ἀφηγητοῦ ψευδῶν γεγονότων δὲν ἔχει ἀποφύγει οὔτε καὶ ὁ Ὅμηρος παρὰ τὰς συνεχεῖς ἀρχαιολογικὰς καὶ ἐπιστημονικὰς ἐπιβεβαιώσεις τῶν ὅσων περιγράφονται εἰς τὰ ἔργα του.
2     Ἔννοια τῆς λέξεως «μῦθος»
Ἡ θέσις ὅτι ὁ Ἡσιόδος ἀναφέρεται εἰς μὴ πραγματικὰ γεγονότα ἐπιβάλλει νὰ τονισθῇ, μετ’ ἐμφάσεως, ἡ ἐννοιολογικὴ καὶ νοηματικὴ διάκρισις μεταξὺ τῶν λέξεων «μῦθος» καὶ «παραμύθιον». Ἡ σύγχρονος ἐπιστήμη καὶ κοινὴ ἀντίληψις θεωροῦν τὰς λέξεις συνωνύμους πρὸς τὴν ἀφήγησιν, μὴ ἀληθῶν, ἀποκυημάτων τῆς φαντασίας τοῦ συγγραφέως. Ἀντιθέτως, τὸ λεξικὸν Liddell-Scott διακρίνει τὰς ἐννοίας τῶν λέξεων τόυτων καὶ ἑρμηνεύει τὸ «παραμύθιον» ὡς παραίνεσιν, λόγον παρήγορον ἤ προτρεπτικὸν, καὶ τὸν «μῦθον» ὡς πᾶν ὅ,τι λέγεται προφορικῶς, ἐν οἷς καὶ ἡ ἱστορία ἄνευ διακρίσεως ἀληθοῦς ἤ ψευδοῦς.
Ἡ μὴ νόησις τῆς ἀληθοῦς ἐννοίας τῆς λέξεως «μῦθος», ὁδηγεῖ εἰς, ἱστορικῶς ἀποδεδειγμένην, παρα-νόησιν, παρα-ἐρμηνείαν καὶ ἀπόῤῥιψιν διασωθεισῶν ἀληθειῶν, ὡς: Τρωικὸς πόλεμος, Μινωικὸς καὶ Μυκηναϊκὸς πολιτισμοὶ.
Ἡ ἀλήθεια ἐνυπάρχει εἰς τὸν πυρῆνα κάθε μύθου. Ἡ ταύτισις τῶν ἐννοιῶν τῶν λέξεων «μῦθος» καὶ «παρα-μύθιον» συνιστᾶ λόγον παρά-λογον, φρονήσεως παρα-φρονούσης, νοῦ παρα-νοοῦντος καὶ παρα-χαράκτου τῆς ἀληθείας.
3   Στοιχεῖα περὶ τὴν Μεγάλην Ἔκρηξιν
Ἡ θεωρία τῆς Μεγάλης Ἐκρήξεως δέχεται ὅτι τὸ σύμπαν ἔχει μίαν ἀρχὴν[2]  ἥτις τοποθετεῖται πρὸ 13.7 δισ. ἐτῶν. Πρὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς δὲν ὑπῆρξεν χῶρος, μᾶζα, χρόνος, ἐνέργεια. Κατὰ τὴν χρονικὴν διάρκειαν τς ἀρχῆς ὑπῆρξεν μία ὑπερμέτρως συμπεπυκνωμένη ὑπέρθερμος μᾶζα[3], τὸ «κοσμικὸν ἄτομον», ἡ ὁποία ἐξεράγη ἤ, κατ’ ἄλλoυς, διευρύνθη[4] καὶ ἐξελίχθη εἰς τὸ σύμπαν. Τὰ προϊόντα τῆς μεγάλης ἐκρήξεωςδιευρύνσεως ἤρχισαν ἀπομακρυνόμενα ἀλλήλων καὶ ἔκτοτε τὸ σύμπαν ἀεὶ διαστέλλεται[5]. Ὡς ἀποδείξεις διὰ τὴν θεωρίαν τῆς μεγάλης ἐκρήξεως θεωροῦνται τόσον ἡ ὕπαρξις, εἰς τὸ ὁρατὸν σύμπαν, μεγάλων ποσοτήτων «ἐλαφρῶν στοιχείων»[6] ὑδρογόνου καὶ ἡλίου, ὅσον καὶ ἡ ἀνεύρεσις ὑπολειμμάτων ἀκτινοβολίας μικροκυμάτων τοῦ κοσμικοῦ ὑποβάθρου, θεωρουμένης ὡς ὑπόλειμμα τῆς ἀρχικῆς θερμοκρασίας τοῦ «κοσμικοῦ ἀτόμου». Ἡ ἀνακάλυψις αὕτη ἀπέφερεν τὸ ¼ τοῦ βραβείου Nobel (1978) εἰς ἕκαστον ἐκ τῶν ἀστροφυσικῶν Radio Perzias καὶ Robert Wilson[7]. Ὡς πρὸς τὴν δημιουργίαν τοῦ χώρου, ὁ Steven Hawking μετὰ τῶν George Ellis[8] καὶ Roger Penrose[9] ἐπεξέτειναν τὴν θεωρίαν τῆς σχετικότητος καὶ τὰ ἔτη 1968 καὶ 1970 ἐδημοσίευσαν ἐργασίας συμφώνως πρὸς τὰς ὁποίας τὸ «κοσμικὸν ἄτομον» δὲν ἐνεφανίσθη εἰς τὸν χῶρον καὶ μᾶλλον χῶρος καὶ χρόνος ἐδημιουργήθησαν ἐκ τοῦ «κοσμικοῦ ἀτόμου»!
Ἡ ἄποψις δημιουργίας τοῦ χώρου ἐκ τοῦ κοσμικοῦ ἀτόμου ἀναιρεῖ, μᾶλλον, τὴν Ἀριστοτέλειον λογικὴν σχέσιν «αἰτίου-αἰτιατοῦ» ἥτις ἐπάγει ὅτι τὸ κοσμικὸν ἄτομον, ἀνεξαρτήτως σμικρότητος, καταλαμβάνει, ἀπειροελάχιστον μὲν, χῶρον δὲ.
Μὲ πᾶσαν ἐπιφύλαξιν ὑπάρξεως νεωτέρων ἀνακοινώσεων, εἰς τὰ ἐρωτήματα περὶ «κοσμικοῦ ἀτόμου»: πῶς προῆλθεν; ποία ἡ φύσις του; διατί ἐδημιουργήθη; ἐντός τίνος ἐνεφανίσθη; ἡ ἀστροφυσικὴ ἀπαντᾶ «δὲν γνωρίζω[10]»!
Ἐπιπροσθέτως, ἡ ἐπιστήμη ἐθεμελίωσεν τὴν ἔννοιαν τῆς ἀναγκαίας καὶ ἱκανῆς συνθήκης διὰ τὴν ἐπίτευξιν ἀποτελέσματός τινος.
Διὰ τὴν τέλεσιν μίας ἐκρήξεως τὸ μὲν «ἀναγκαῖον» συνίσταται ἐκ τῆς συνυπάρξεως α) χώρου ἐντὸς τοῦ ὁποίου λαμβάνει χώραν ἡ ἔκρηξις, β) μάζης πρὸς ἔκρηξιν καὶ γ) καταλύτου πρὸς ἐνεργοποίησιν τῆς διαδικασίας τῆς ἐκρήξεως, τὸ δὲ «ἱκανόν» συνίσταται ἐκ τοῦ καταλλήλου τῶν συνθηκῶν ὡς: πυκνότης μάζης, πίεσις καὶ θερμοκρασία.
4     Ἑρμηνεία στίχων Θεογονίας
Ὁ Ἡσίοδος χωρὶς νὰ παραβιάζῃ τὴν σχέσιν «αἰτίουαἰτιατοῦ» τοῦ Ἀριστοτέλους, περιγράφει τόσον τὰς ἐννοίας ἀναγκαῖον καὶ ἱκανὸν διὰ τὴν ἐπίτευξιν τῆς μεγάλης ἐκρήξεως, ὅσον καὶ τὰ ἀποτελέσματα τῆς ἐκρήξεως μέχρι καὶ σήμερον.
4.1         Ἀναγκαία συνθήκη διὰ τὴν Μεγάλην Ἔκρηξιν
ἀναγκαία, διὰ τὴν Μεγάλην Ἔκρηξιν, συνθήκην περιγράφεται εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν ὡς ἀκολούθως:
  • γένεσις χώρου: ἤτοι μὲν πρώτιστα Χάος γένετ᾽, αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα Θεογ. στ. 116
  • γένεσις μάζης Γαῖ᾽ εὐρύστερνος, πάντων ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶ Θεογ. στ. 117
  • γένεσις καταλύτου ἠδ᾽ Ἔρος, ὃς κάλλιστος ἐν ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι, Θεογ. στ. 120
λυσιμελής, πάντων δὲ θεῶν πάντων τ᾽ ἀνθρώπων               Θεογ. στ. 121
Ἡ ἐπιλογὴ τῶν λέξεων ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἡσιόδου ὡς καὶ ἡ σειρὰ τῶν συμβάντων κάθε ἄλλο παρὰ τυχαία εἶναι, ὡς ἀναλύεται κατωτέρω:
4.1.1        ἤτοι μὲν πρώτιστα Χάος γένετ᾽
Ὁ Ἡσίοδος ἐπιλέγει τὴν λέξιν «πρώτιστα» καὶ οὐχὶ «ἐν ἀρχῇ» ὡς πράττουν ἕτερα κείμενα ἀναφερόμενα εἰς τὴν κοσμογονίαν. Ἡ λέξις «ἀρχὴ» ἐτυμολογεῖται ἐκ τοῦ ῥήματος «ἄρχω» καὶ ἑρμηνεύεται ὡς ἔναρξις. Συνήθεις χρήσεις τῆς λέξεως «ἀρχή» συναντῶμεν εἰς τὰ μαθηματικά. Ἐπὶ παραδείγματι, «ὁρίζομεν σημεῖον Α ὡς ἀρχὴν … εὐθυγράμμου τμήματος ἤ περιφερείας κύκλου», ἀλλὰ καὶ εἰς τὴν καθημερινότητα, ὡς: «ἀρχὴ ὁδοῦ, χρονικῆς περιόδου, συζητήσεως κ.ο.κ.». Εἰσέτι, ὁ πατὴρ τοῦ χριστιανισμοῦ Βασίλειος [11] γράφει:
Ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἡ ἀρχὴ κατὰ φύσιν προτέτακται τῶν ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς, …καὶ εἰς τὴν ἀμέσως ἐπομένην παράγραφον:
Ἦν τις πρεσβυτέρα τῆς τοῦ κόσμου γενέσεως κατάστασις ταῖς ὑπερκοσμίοις δυνάμεσι πρέπουσα, ἡ ὑπέρχρονος, ἡ αἰωνία, ἡ ἀΐδιος.
Κατὰ συνέπειαν, ἡ συνήθης χρῆσις ἀλλὰ καὶ θεολογικὴ ἑρμηνεία τῆς λέξεως ἀρχή, δὲν δύναται νὰ σηματοδοτῇ καὶ δὲν σηματοδοτεῖ τὸ σημεῖον ἐκκινήσεως τῆς δημιουργίας τοῦ σύμπαντος.
Ἡ λέξις πρώτιστα συνιστᾶ τὸν ὑπερθετικὸν βαθμὸν τῆς λέξεως πρῶτος καὶ ἐκφράζει τὸ ὑπέρτατον πρῶτον. Ὑπὸ τὴν ἄποψιν αὐτὴν εἶναι ἡ μόνη ἔννοια ἥτις δύναται νὰ σηματοδοτήσῃ τὴν στιγμὴν ἐκκινήσεως τῆς δημιουργίας, πρὸ τῆς ὁποίας οὐδὲν ὑπῆρξεν.
Ἀξιοσημείωτη εἶναι καὶ ἡ ἑρμηνεία τῆς λέξεως «γένετ’[ο]» ἡ ὁποία ἐτυμολογεῖται ἐκ τοῦ ῥήματος «γίγνομαι» καὶ ἑρμηνεύεται ἐπί προσώπων ὡς γεννῶμαι (παθ. φωνὴ), ἐπὶ πραγμάτων ὡς παράγομαι (μέση καὶ παθ. φωνὴ) καὶ ἐπὶ συμβάντων ὡς συμβαίνω (ἐνεργητικὴ φωνή).
Προκύπτει, ὄθεν, ὅτι τὸ Χάος, ὡς μὴ πρόσωπον ἤ πρᾶγμα, οὐδὲ γεννᾶται οὐδὲ παράγεται. Τὸ Χάος συνέβη πρώτιστα. Τὸ λεξικὸν Liddell-Scott ἐπεξηγεῖ τὴν φύσιν τοῦ «χάους» ὡς «τὴν πρώτην τοῦ κόσμου κατάστασιν», ὡς ἄπειρον διάστημα, ἄπειρον ἔκτασιν, ὡς ἄπειρον ἐν γένει. Ἡ λέξις «Χάος» ἐτυμολογεῖται ἐκ τοῦ ῥήματος «χαίνω, χάσκω». Χάος, ὅθεν, εἶναι τὸ χάσμα καὶ κατ’ ἐπέκτασιν ὁ χῶρος.
Ὁ Ἡσίοδος χαρακτηρίζει τὸ Χάος ὡς Ζοφερὸν:
Τιτῆνες ναίουσι, πέρην χάεος ζοφεροῖο. Θεογ. στ. 814
4.1.2        αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα Γαῖ᾽ εὐρύστερνος,
Ἀμέσως μετὰ τὸ Χάος, συνέβη ἡ «εὐρύστερνος Γαῖα», ἡ μᾶζα, τὸ «κοσμικὸν ἄτομον». Ὁ Ὀρφεὺς χρησιμοποιεῖ πλῆθος ἐπιθέτων εἰς τὸν ὕμνον «Γῆς θυμίαμα πᾶν σπέρμα» ὡς θεά, μῆτερ, πάντροφε, πανδώτειρα, τελεσφόρε, αὐξιθαλής, παντολέτειρα, φερέκαρπε… Ἀντὶ ἑνὸς ἐξ αὐτῶν, ὁ Ἡσίοδος ἐπιλέγει τὸ ἐπίθετον «εὐρύστερνος». Διατί; Ποικίλαι αἱ δυναταὶ ἑρμηνεῖαι καὶ ἀπαντήσεις. Υἱοθετοῦμεν τὴν ἀκόλουθον ἄποψιν.
Τὸ στέρνον προστατεύει τὰ δύο κύρια ὄργανα τῆς ζωῆς, πνεύμονας καὶ καρδίαν. Κατ’ ἐπέκτασιν ἡ εὐρύστερνος Γαῖα ἐμπεριέχει καὶ προστατεύει τὰ ζωογόνα ὄργανα τοῦ σύμπαντος. Ὡς ζωογόνος, ἡ Γαῖα εἶναι κατὰ φύσιν:
Γαῖ᾽ εὐρύστερνος, πάντων ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶ Θεογ. στ. 117
[ἀθανάτων, οἳ ἔχουσι κάρη νιφόεντος Ὀλύμπου Θεογ. στ. 118
Τάρταρά τ᾽ ἠερόεντα μυχῷ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης,] Θεογ. στ. 119
4.1.3        ἠδ᾽ Ἔρος, …., λυσιμελής,
Τοῦ Χάους καὶ τῆς Γαίας, ἀκολουθεῖ ἡ γένεσις τοῦ καταλύτου, τοῦ λυσιμελοῦς Ἔρωτος, ὅστις εἶναι διάφορος τοῦ τοξοβόλου υἱοῦ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης καὶ τοῦ Ἄρεως.
Κατὰ τὸ λεξικὸν Liddell-Scott λῡσι-μελὴς/ές, εἶναι ἐπίθετον τοῦ Ὕπνου καὶ ἑρμηνεύεται ὡς «ὁ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος λύων». Κατὰ τὴν στιγμὴν ἐκείνην τῆς δημιουργίας ὑφίσταντο μόνον τὸ Χάος καὶ ἡ Γαῖα, ἐπὶ τῶν ὁποίων ὁ Ἔρως δρᾶ ὡς λυσιμελὴς.
4.1.4        Ὁλοκλήρωσις ἀναγκαίας, διὰ τὴν ἔκρηξιν, συνθήκης
Τὸ πρῶτον σύστημα ἔχει δημιουργηθεῖ. Παρόντες Χάος, Γαῖα, Ἔρως. Συμφώνως πρὸς τὴν θερμοδυναμικήν, τὸ δημιουργηθὲν σύστημα ἐμπεριέχει συγκεκριμένην ἐνέργειαν ἐξαρτωμένην ἐκ τῆς καταστάσεως εἰς τὴν ὁποίαν εὑρίσκεται καὶ οὐχὶ ἐκ τοῦ τρόπου διὰ τοῦ ὁποίου εὑρέθη εἰς τὴν κατάστασιν αὐτὴν. Ἡ ἐνεργειακὴ κατάστασις τοῦ τότε σύμπαντος περιγράφεται εἰς τὸν στίχον 700.
Καῦμα δὲ θεσπέσιον κάτεχεν Χάος· … Θεογ. στ. 700
Καῦμα: καίουσα θερμότης (Liddell-Scott).
4.2         Γαῖα, χθὼν: διακριταὶ ἀλλήλων ὀντότητες
Γαῖα εὐρύστερνος, χθὼν εὐρυοδείη. Ἐπισημαίνεται ὁ τρόπος γραφῆς τῶν λέξεων Γαῖα (24 φοράς), γαῖα (27 φορὰς), Γῆ (1 φοράν), γῆ (8 φορὰς), καὶ χθών (18 φορὰς).
Ὁ τρόπος γραφῆς ἄλλοτε μὲ μικρὸν καὶ ἄλλοτε μὲ κεφαλαῖον τὸ πρῶτον γράμμα δὲν ὑποκρύπτει λάθος ἤ παράλειψιν. Διαφωνοῦμεν ῥιζικῶς πρὸς τὴν συμβατικὴν ἐπιστήμην ἡ ὁποία ἀποδίδει τὰς ἀνωτέρω λέξεις ὡς συνωνύμους. Διατηροῦμεν ἰδίαν ἄποψιν διὰ τὴν ἔννοιαν τῆς λέξεως «Γῆ», ἡ ἀνάλυσις τῆς ὁποίας ἐκφεύγει τῶν ὁρίων τῆς παρουσιάσεως.
Ὁ Ἡσίοδος τοποθετεῖ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐπὶ τῆς χθονός:
Ὅρκον θ᾽, ὃς δὴ πλεῖστον ἐπιχθονίους ἀνθρώπους Θεογ. στ. 231
Ἐκ τοῦ δ᾽ ἀθανάτοισιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ φῦλ᾽ ἀνθρώπων Θεογ. στ. 556
θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποις, οἳ ἐπὶ χθονὶ ναιετάουσιν Θεογ. στ. 564
Γαῖα καὶ χθὼν εἶναι, σαφῶς, διακριταὶ ἀλλήλων ὀντότητες, τῆς εὐρυοδείης χθονὸς ἑδραζομένης ἀσφαλῶς ἐπὶ τῆς εὐρυστέρνου Γαίας!
5     Ἱκανὴ συνθήκη διὰ τὴν τέλεσιν μίας ἐκρήξεως
Ἡ ὅδευσις πρὸς τὴν ἱκανήν, διὰ τὴν ἔκρηξιν, συνθήκην περιγράφεται εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν ὡς ἀκολούθως:
  • δρᾶσις Χάους γένεσις Ἐρέβους καὶ μέλαινας Νυκτὸς
Ἐκ Χάεος δ᾽ Ἔρεβός τε μέλαινά τε Νὺξ ἐγένοντο·      Θεογ. στ. 123
  • δρᾶσις Ἐρέβους καὶ Νυκτὸς γένεσις Αἰθέρος καὶ Ἡμέρας
Νυκτὸς δ᾽ αὖτ᾽ Αἰθήρ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἐξεγένοντο,      Θεογ. στ. 124
  • τίνι τρόπῳ γένεσις; φιλότητι μιγεῖσα.
οὓς τέκε κυσαμένη Ἐρέβει φιλότητι μιγεῖσα.             Θεογ. στ. 125
Μεγίστην βαρύτητα λαμβάνει ἡ κατανόησις τῶν ἐννοιῶν «φιλότης» καὶ «μίξις φιλότητι» ὡς καλολογικῶν στοιχείων. Συστηματικῶς Ἕλληνες καὶ ἀλλοδαποὶ μελετηταὶ καὶ μεταφρασταὶ τῆς Θεογονίας ἀποδίδουν τὴν λέξιν φιλότητα ὡς ἐρωτικὴν πρᾶξιν εἰς τὰς 25 ἐκ τῶν 26 ἐπαναλήψεων τῆς λέξεως. Μοναδικὴ πιθανὴ ἐξαίρεσις ὁ στῖχος
μετὰ τὴν δ᾽ Ἀπάτην τέκε καὶ Φιλότητα Θεογ. στ. 224
Ἐρωτικὴν ἔννοιαν εἰς τὴν φιλότηταν ἀποδίδει τὸ λεξικὸν Liddell-Scott μόνον «…ἐπὶ τῆς μεταξὺ ἀνδρὸς καὶ γυναικὸς συνουσίας…».
Δι’ ἡμᾶς ἡ φιλότης καὶ δὴ ἡ «μίξις φιλότητι» τονίζει τὸ ἱκανὸν διὰ τὴν ἐπίτευξιν συγκεκριμένου ἀποτελέσματος. Ὁ τολμούμενος ἐνταῦθα ἐναρμονισμὸς τῶν ἐννοιῶν φιλότης καὶ ἱκανῆς συνθήκης μειονεκτεῖ κατὰ τὸ ὅτι δὲν συνάδει τῆς κρατούσης ἀντιλήψεως καὶ δὲν ἀνευρίσκεται μεταξὺ τῶν ἑρμηνειῶν τοῦ λεξικοῦ. Πλεονεκτεῖ ὅμως κατὰ τὸ ὅτι συνάδει ἀπολύτως πρὸς τὴν ἔννοιαν τῆς «μεταφορᾶς» τῶν καλολογικῶν στοιχείων τῆς Ἑλληνικῆς γλώσσης.
Στεῖρα χρῆσις τῶν ἐννοιῶν τῶν λέξεων ἐπιτρέπει, κατ’ ἀναλογίαν, τοὺς ἀκολούθους παρα-λογισμούς:
  • «κατάστασις ἐγκυμονοῦσα κινδύνους» = «κατάστασις συνουσιασθεῖσα»!
  • «ἀποκύημα φαντασίας» = «φαντασία συνουσιασθεῖσα»!
Στεῖρα μετάφρασις ἰσοδυναμεῖ μὲ κατάργησιν τῶν καλολογικῶν στοιχείων τῆς γλώσσης, καὶ δὴ τῆς ποιήσεως. Διερωτώμεθα, ὅθεν, πρὸς τὶ ὁ μόχθος ἀναλύσεως ποιημάτων!

5.1         Θερμοδυναμικὴ – μίξις φιλότητι

Ἡ Θερμοδυναμικὴ δίδει ἄριστον παράδειγμα μίξεως φιλότητι ὡς εἰς σχῆμα 1
σχῆμα 1: διάγραμμα φάσεων[12]. Ἡ συνεχὴς πρασίνη γραμμὴ ἱσχύει διὰ τὸ σύνολον, σχεδὸν, ἐκ τῶν οὺσιῶν. Ἡ διακεκομμένη πρασίνη γραμμὴ δεικνείει τὴν ἀνώμαλον συμπεριφορὰν τοῦ ὕδατος.
Ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις ὡς εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου1
Ζητούμενον: Συνύπαρξις, ἐν ἰσοῤῥοπίᾳ, τῶν φάσεων τοῦ ὕδατος: στερεά, ὑγρά, ἀερία. Ἀναγκαῖον:  προΰπαρξις τῶν τριῶν φάσεων.
Ἱκανὸν:         Μίξις φιλότητι πιέσεως καὶ θερμο-κρασίας ὁδηγεῖ τὰς τρεῖς φάσεις εἰς συνύπαρξιν, ἐν ἰσοῤῥοπίᾳ, εἰς τὸ τριπλοῦν σημεῖον.
·    Πέραν τοῦ σημείου τούτου στερεά, ἀερία καὶ ὑγρὰ φάσεις παύουν συνυπάρχουσαι.
·    Πίεσις καὶ θερμοκρασία ἐξακολουθοῦν μιγνύμεναι, πλὴν, οὐ φιλότητι διὰ τὸ συγκεκριμένον ζητούμενον.
 
5.2         Δρᾶσις Χάους
Ὁ τροχὸς τῆς δημιουργίας τίθεται εἰς κίνησιν. Αἱ ἱκαναὶ διὰ τὴν ἔκρηξιν συνθῆκαι ἀρχίζουν σχηματιζόμεναι. Τῇ λυσιμελῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ Ἔρωτος, πρῶτον δρᾶ τὸ Χάος καὶ παράγει τὸ Ἔρεβος καὶ τὴν μέλαινα Νύκτα. Τὸ ἔρεβος μᾶς παραδίδεται ἄνευ προσθέτου χαρακτηρισμοῦ. Ἡ Νὺξ χαρακτηρίζεται «μέλαινα», «δνοφερή» καὶ «ἐρεβεννή».
Νυκτός τε δνοφερῆς, οὕς θ᾽ ἁλμυρὸς ἔτρεφε Πόντος. Θεογ. στ. 107
Ἐκ Χάεος δ᾽ Ἔρεβός τε μέλαινά τε Νὺξ ἐγένοντο· Θεογ. στ. 123
οὔ τινι κοιμηθεῖσα θεῶν τέκε Νὺξ ἐρεβεννή, Θεογ. στ. 213
Δνοφερὰ χαρακτηρίζεται καὶ ἡ «γῆ» οὐχὶ ὅμως ἡ «Γαῖα».
ἔνθα δὲ γῆς δνοφερῆς καὶ ταρτάρου ἠερόεντος Θεογ. στ. 807
5.3         Δρᾶσις Ἐρέβους καὶ Νυκτός φιλότητι μιγέντων.
Ἀρχικῶς ἡ Νὺξ μεταβαίνει ἐκ τῆς δνοφερῆς καὶ ἐρεβώδους πρὸς τὴν μέλαινα κατάστασιν.
Ὁ τροχὸς τῆς παραγωγῆς συνεχίζει κινούμενος. Τὸ Ἔρεβος, τῇ λυσιμελῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ Ἔρωτος, μίγνυται φιλότητι μετὰ τῆς Νυκτὸς ἥτις παράγει τὸν Αἰθέρα καὶ τὴν Ἡμέραν, ὀντότητας τὰς ὁποίας ὑμνεῖ καὶ ὁ Ὀρφεύς.
Ἡ πορεία πρὸς τὴν ἱκανήν, διὰ τὴν ἔκρηξιν, συνθήκην, εἶναι πρόδηλος (σχῆμα 2):
σχῆμα 2: ὅδευσις πρὸς τὴν ἱκανοποίησιν τῆς ἱκανῆς, διὰ τὴν ἔκρηξιν, συνθήκης
Ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις ὡς εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου2
Ἐκ τοῦ Ἐρέβους (ἀπόλυτον σκότος) φθάνομεν σταδιακῶς εἰς τὴν Ἡμέραν (ἀπόλυτον φῶς).
Ἡμέρα εἶναι τὸ φῶς, προκαλεῖ τὴν αὔξησιν τῆς θερμότητος, ἐπιφέρει τὴν ἱκανήν, διὰ τὴν ἔκρηξιν, συνθήκην.
Τὸ τότε σύμπαν φλέγεται!             Ἡ ἀναγκαῖα καὶ ἱκανὴ, διὰ τὴν ἔκρηξιν, συνθήκη ἐπετεύχθη. Ἀναγκαῖον καὶ ἱκανὸν συνυπάρχουν. Ἀναγκαῖον:             χῶρος = Χάος, μᾶζα = Γαῖα, καταλύτης = Ἔρως. Ἱκανόν: τὸ θεσπέσιον καῦμα τοῦ Χάους, ἡ γένεσις τῆς Ἡμέρας.
6    …ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις συντελεῖται…
μεγάλη ἔκρηξις περιγράφεται εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν ὡς ἀκολούθως:
Γαῖα δέ τοι πρῶτον μὲν ἐγείνατο ἶσον ἑαυτῇ Θεογονία στίχος 126
Ὁ στίχος 127 περιγράφει τὴν ἐπιστημονικῶς ἀποδειχθεῖσαν ἀεὶ διαστολὴν τοῦ Οὐρανοῦ».
Οὐρανὸν ἀστερόενθ᾽, ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοι, Θεογονία στίχος  127
Ἑν μόνον στοιχεῖον, ἡ Γαῖα, δρᾶ, μὲ πρῶτον γένημα τὸν ἴσον πρὸς αὐτὴν ἀστερόεντα Οὐρανὸν ὅστις ἔχει ὡς ἀποστολὴν «ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοι».
ἤτοι:        Γαῖα = Οὐρανὸς ἀστερόεις
Εἱς τὴν ἐξίσωσιν αὐτὴν διακρίνεται ἡ ἀρχὴ διατηρήσεως τῆς ἐνεργείας, τὴν ὁποίαν ἡ ἐπιστήμη ὀνόμασεν, χιλιετίας ἀργότερον, «πρῶτον θερμοδυναμικὸν νόμον».
Ἄποψιν περὶ τοῦ ἤχου-κρότου τῆς ἐκρήξεως μᾶς περιγράφει ὁ στίχος 703
τοῖος γάρ κε μέγας ὑπὸ δοῦπος ὀρώρει, Θεογονία στίχος 703
Liddell-Scott:  δοῦπος: κρότος, βαρὺς, ὑπόκωφος ἦχος. ὀρώρει: ἐκ τοῦ ὄρνυμι, διεγείρω
Ὁ Ἡσίοδος εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν περιγράφει τὸ πρῶτον ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ μετέπειτα γενήματα τῆς Γαίας. Ἐντὸς τοῦ ἀστερόεντος Οὐρανοῦ ὁ κύκλος ζωῆς-θανάτου οὐδέποτε ἔπαυσεν ὑπάρχων. Ἡ ἀστροφυσικὴ γνωρίζει ὅτι ὁ κύκλος γενέσεωςθανάτου ἀστέρων συνεχίζεται, καὶ ἄρα ἡ Γαῖα συνεχίζει δρῶσα τῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ λυσιμελοῦς Ἔρωτος. Ὁ Jan Pierre Vernant[13] μᾶς ἐπεξηγεῖ τὸν λόγον διὰ τὸν ὁποῖον ὁ εὐνουχισμὸς τοῦ Οὐρανοῦ σηματοδοτεῖ τὴν ἀπελευθέρωσιν τῶν φυσικῶν δυνάμεων, τὴν ἔναρξιν τῆς κινήσεως καὶ ἄρα τοῦ χρόνου, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν αἰωνίαν τεκνοποίησιν διὰ τῆς γενέσεως τῆς Ἀφροδίτης.
Ὁ ἀδυσώπητος Χρόνος (Κρόνος) συνεχίζει καταβροχθίζων τὰ τέκνα του.
6.1         Ἀναπαράστασις μεγάλης ἐκρήξεως ὡς εἰς Ἡσίοδον (σχῆμα 3)
σχῆμα 3: Ὅδευσις πρὸς τὴν Μεγάλην Ἔκρηξιν ὡς εἰς Ἡσίοδον.
Ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις ὡς εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου3
7     Πηγὴ γνώσεων τοῦ ποιμένος Ἡσιόδου
Πάντα ταῦτα περιγράφονται ὑπὸ ἑνὸς ποιμένος. Τῷ ὄντι, συνιστοῦν ὀξύμωρον σχῆμα τόσονκοινωνικὴ τάξις ὅσον αἱ ἐπιδόσεις καὶ γεωγραφικαὶ γνώσεις τοῦ Ἡσιόδου εἰς ἐποχὴν καθ᾿ ἥν ἡ μετοίκισις εἰς γειτονικὸν χωρίον ἐχαρακτηρίζετο ὡς «ξενιτεία»!
ποιμὴν εἶναι μύστης, ἀποφεύγει τὰ παράδοξα καὶ τὰ προθύστερα καὶ μᾶς πληροφορεῖ, χωρὶς νὰ παραβιάζῃ τὴν ἀρχὴν αἰτίου-αἰτιατοῦ, διὰ τὴν γένεσιν τῆς ἀναγκαίας, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἱκανῆς συνθήκης διὰ τὴν τέλεσιν τῆς Μεγάλης Ἐκρήξεως.
Εἰς τὸ εὔλογον τὸ ἐρώτημα: Πόθεν γνῶσις; τὴν ἀπάντησιν δίδει ὁ ἴδιος ὁ Ἡσίοδος: Θέσπις· Μουσάων Ἑλικωνιάδων! Θεογ. Στ. 32.
8   Τὸ δίλημμα
Τούτου λεχθέντος τιθέμεθα ἐνώπιον τοῦ διλήμματος: Νὰ πιστεύσωμεν καὶ χαρακτηρίσωμεν ὡς θεόπνευστον τὸν Ἡσίοδον νὰ τὸν ἀποῤῥίψωμεν ὡς ἀγράμματον ποιμένα, φαντασιόπληκτον καὶ ψευδολόγον; Εἰς τὸ δίλημμα ἀπαντᾶ ἡ θέσις τοῦ πατρὸς τῆς ὀρθοδόξου χριστιανικῆς πίστεως Χρυσοστόμου, φιλότητι διαμορφωμένη. Ἀντιγράφομεν ἐκ τοῦ προλόγου τῆς Παλαιᾶς Διαθήκης, σελ. 7, Παναγιώτου Τζελάτη, ἐκδ. Παρασκευὰ Λεονῆ, 1892:
Εἴτις δὲ τῶν ἁπλουστέρων καὶ ἀμυήτων τῆς Θεογονίας τοῦ Ἡσιόδου ὀρθοδόξου Θεολογίας ἐν τῷ ἀναγινώσκειν οὐ κατανοεῖν τὴν ἔννοιαν χωρίου τινὸς, ἑαυτοῦ καταγνώτω, ὡς μὴ δυναμένου κατανοῆσαι αἱ Μοῦσαι Θεὸς ἀψευδῶς ἐλάλησαν ἐλάλησεν. Αἰτία τῆς ἀκαταληψίας ἐστὶν ἀτέλεια τοῦ ἀναγινώσκοντος, οὐχὶ δὲ ὅτι αἱ Μοῦσαι Θεὸς ἀσαφῶς ἀτελῶς ἐλάλησαν ἐλάλησεν· μυείσθω! ἄπαγε! Πᾶσα Θεογονία ἁγ. Γραφὴ ὡς θεόπνευστος εἶναι καὶ ἀλάθητος.
9    Ἐτυμολογία τῆς λέξεως Οὐρανὸς
Ἀποτελεῖ πίστιν μας ὅτι ἡ ἀποστολὴ τοῦ Οὐρανοῦ «ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοι» ἐπιτρέπει τὴν ἐτυμολόγησιν τούτου ἐκ τοῦ προθέματος «οὐρ» (μακράν) καὶ τοῦ ῥήματος «ἄνω» = διανύω, προχωρῶ πρὸς τὸ τέλος.
Τῷ ὄντι, ὁ Οὐρανὸς εἶναι μακράν καὶ διανύει τὰ πάντα προχωρῶν πρὸς τὸ τέλος τοῦ ἀπείρου σύμπαντος. Ὁ Οὐρανὸς ἐκτείνεται πέραν τῶν ὁρίων τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης ὁράσεως καὶ τεχνολογίας, καὶ πιθανότατα ἐκτείνεται πέραν καὶ αὐτῆς ἀκόμη τῆς φαντασίας μας. Ὁ Οὐρανὸς διαστέλλεται· τὶς οἶδεν μέχρι ποίων ὁρίων καὶ μέχρι ποίου χρονικοῦ σημείου ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοι!
10  Συμπέρασμα – Ἡσίοδος ὁ μύστης
Ὁ Ἡσίοδος ἀπολαμβάνει τὴν αἴγλην τοῦ δευτέρου τῇ τάξει ποιητοῦ τῆς ἀρχαιότητος καὶ ταυτοχρόνως ἀπαξιοῦται ὡς φαντασιόπληκτος.
Κατὰ τὴν ἄποψίν μας, Ἡσίοδος εἶναι μέγας μύστης καὶ κάτοχος κορυφαίας, διὰ τὴν ἐποχὴν του, ἐπιστημονικῆς γνώσεως, τὴν ὁποίαν παρουσιάζει φιλότητι διαμορφωμένη, ὥστε νὰ γίνῃ κτῆμα τόσον τῶν συγχρόνων πρὸς αὐτὸν ὅσον καὶ τῶν μετέπειτα γενεῶν.
Τὰ ἀναγραφόμενα εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν δὲν δύνανται καὶ δὲν ἀποτελοῦν συμπτώσεις ἤ προϊόντα, καὶ μόνον, τῆς ἀεὶ ἀχαλινώτου δημιουργικῆς φαντασίας τῶν Ἑλλήνων! Ὁ Ἡσίοδος δὲν ἀντλεῖ τὰ θέματα ἐκ τῆς φαντασίας του ἀλλὰ γνωρίζει ὡς μύστης καὶ θείᾳ ἐντολῇ, περιγράφει εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τὴν, διὰ τῆς Μεγάλης Ἐκρήξεως, δημιουργίαν τοῦ Σύμπαντος.
Δυστυχῶς διὰ τὴν ἀνθρωπότητα, ἡ γνῶσις τῶν Ἑλλήνων σοφῶν, λοιδορηθεῖσα ἀνηλεῶς καὶ δὴ καὶ ὑπὸ αὐτῶν ἀκόμη τῶν γαλουχηθέντων τὰ νάματα τῆς Ἑλληνικῆς γραμματείας, δὲν εἶχεν τὴν δέουσαν ἐπιστημονικὴν συνέχειαν καὶ παρέμεινεν ἄγνωστος ἐπὶ αἰῶνας. Ἡ γνῶσις κατεσπαράχθη. Ὁ μαθητὴς τοῦ Λιβανίου καὶ μετέπειτα πατὴρ τοῦ χριστιανισμοῦ Βασίλειος γράφει[14]:
Πολλὰ περὶ φύσεως ἐπραγματεύσαντο οἱ τῶν Ἑλλήνων σοφοὶ, καὶ οὐδὲ εἷς παρ᾿ αὐτοῖς λόγος ἕστηκεν ἀκίνητος καὶ ἀσάλευτος, ἀεὶ τοῦ δευτέρου τὸν πρὸ αὐτοῦ καταβάλλοντος· ὥστε ἡμῖν μηδὲν ἔργον εἶναι τὰ ἐκείνων ἐλέγχειν· ἀρκοῦσι γὰρ ἀλλήλοις πρὸς τὴν οἰκείαν ἀνατροπήν.
Τὰ ἐλάχιστα διασωθέντα κείμενα τῶν προγόνων μας εἶναι μεστὰ γνώσεως. Οἱ γίγαντες τοῦ ἀνθρωπίνου πνεύματος ἀεὶ συμβάλλουν εἰς τὴν ἐπίλυσιν τῶν προβληματισμῶν τῆς ἀνθρωπότητος. Ἡ Σωκράτειος μαιευτικὴ μᾶς ἐπιτρέπει νὰ διηθήσωμεν εἰς τὴν βιβλιογραφίαν τῶν Ἑλλήνων προγόνων μας, πρὸς ἐξόρυξιν καὶ κατανόησιν τῶν ὑπερβατῶν ἀληθειῶν!

11   Ἐπίλογος

Ἡ ἀποδοχὴ ἤ ἀπόῤῥιψις τοῦ ἱσχυρισμοῦ τοῦ Ἡσιόδου περὶ «θέσπιδος λόγου» ἐπαφίεται εἰς τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τὸν βαθμὸν μυήσεως ἑκάστου ἐξ ἡμῶν.
Ἡ παρουσιασθεῖσα σύνδεσις στίχων Θεογονίας πρὸς τὰ δεδομένα τῆς συγχρόνου ἐπιστήμης δὲν ἀποτελοῦν αὐδὴν θέσπιν ἀλλὰ προϊὸν μυητικῆς μελέτης.
Ἄλλαι ἀπόψεις εἶναι καὶ δυναταὶ καὶ εὐπρόσδεκτοι.
Ἐν κακακλείδι δὲν διανοούμεθα:
  • Χθόνα καὶ Οὐρανὸν μιγομένους ἐχθρότητι.
  • Χθόνα μὴ ὀμβροχαρὴν, μὴ κυοφοροῦσαν, μὴ ὀμβροτόκον.
  • Μήτραν χθονὸς φερέκαρπον ἀπουσία Οὐρανίου ὄμβρου.
Ὑποσημειώσεις:
  • [1]  Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extragalactiques, 1927, Georges Lemaître, Catholic Priest, Astronomer and Physist at University of Leuven. «The universe in a nutshell, Stephen Hawking. Ἐκδ. Κάτοπτρον, 2001, σελ.23»,
  • [2] Τὸ Σύμπαν σὲ ἕνα Καρουδότσουφλον. Ἐκδ. Κάτοπτρον, 2001, σελ.35, 41, 79
  • [3]  Τὸ Σύμπαν σὲ ἕνα Καρουδότσουφλον. Ἐκδ. Κάτοπτρον, 2001, σελ.23
  • [4] ἱστότοπος Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/the-origin-of-the-universe.html, καὶ http://www.big-bang-theory.com/
  • [5] ὅρα ὑποσημείωσιν 1 καὶ 2, σελ.23, 92
  • [6] ὅρα ὑποσημείωσιν 4
  • [7] ἱστότοπος https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1978/
  • [8] The Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and the Existence of Singularities in our Universe, Steven W. Hawking, George F.R. Ellis, Astrophysical Journal, vol. 152, (1968) pp. 25-36, Definition of singularity sct. II. The nature of the singularity sct. vi.
  • [9] The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology, Steven W. Hawking, Roger Penrose, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, series A, 314 (1970) pp. 529-548. ἱστότοπος http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/
  • [10]  ἱστότοπος http://www.bigbangtheory.com/ 
  • [11]   «Ὁμιλία εἰς τὴν ἑξαήμερον», (ὁμ.αʹ, ἐν. ΙΙ, παρ.4)
  • [12] ἱστότοποι https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Κρίσιμο_σημεῖο_(θερμοδυναμικὴ) καὶ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_point
  • [13] L’univers, les dieux, les hommes , Jan Pierre Vernant, Παρίσι, 1999
  • [14] Ὁμιλία εἰς τὴν ἑξαήμερον, ὁμ. Α’, παρ.ΙΙ, γραμμὴ 2, Μέγας Βασίλειος
Βιβλιογραφία:

  1. Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου, ἀρχαῖον κείμενον
  2. Ἡσιόδου Θεογονία, Σταύρου καὶ Ἀγγέλου Βλάχου
  3. Ἡσιόδου Θεογονία, ἱστότοπος https://msu.edu/~tyrrell/theogon.pdf
  4. Ἡσιόδου Θεογονία, ἱστότοπος http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hesiod/theogony.htm
  5. The universe in a nutshell, Stephen Hawking, ἐκδόσεις Κάτοπτρον, 2001
  6. The Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and the Existence of Singularities in our Universe, Steven W. Hawking, George F.R. Ellis, Astrophysical Journal, 152, (1968) pp. 25-36.
  7. The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology, Steven W. Hawking, Roger Penrose, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, series A, 314 (1970) pp. 529-548. ἱστότοπος http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/
  8. L’univers, les dieux, les hommes , Jan Pierre Vernant, Παρίσι, 1999
  9. Les Origines de la pensée grecque, Jan Pierre Vernant, Παρίσι, 1962
  10. Mythe et religion en Grèce ancienne, Jan Pierre Vernant, Παρίσι, 1990
  11. Ὁμιλία εἰς τὴν ἑξαήμερον, Μέγας Βασίλειος
  12. Κατὰ Ἑλλήνων, Μέγας Ἀθανάσιος,
  13. Παλαιὰ Διαθήκη κατὰ τοὺς ἑβδομήκοντα, 1892, κεφάλαιον γενέσεως.
  14. Ἀπολλώνιος Τυανεύς, Φιλόστρατος
  15. Ὀρφικοὶ Ὕμνοι, Ἰωάννου Πασσᾶ, ἐκδ. Ἥλιος,
  16. Ὀρφικοὶ Ὕμνοι, Ὕπατο Συμβούλιον Ἑλλήνων Ἐθνικῶν, 2001, Dr. Άνδρέα Τσοιλομύτης Πανεποστήμιον Αἰγαίου
  17. The Orphic Hymns, by Thomas Taylor, London, MDCCCXCVI (1896)
  18. Ἰστότοπος «Ἀρχαία Ἑλληνικὴ Γλῶσσα καὶ Γραμματεία» greek-language.gr
  19. Ἰστότοπος Lexigram lexigram.gr
  20. Ἱστότοπος LSJ: THESAURUS LINGUAE GRAECAE The Online Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon http://stephanus.tlg.uci.edu/lsj/#eid=1&context=lsj
  21. Ἱστότοπος Λεξικὸν Liddell & Scott Κωνσταντινίδου, Πανεπιστήμιον Αἰγαίου, Τμῆμα Μαθηματικῶν, καθ. Ἀνδρέας Παπασαλοῦρος, Ἀντώνιος Τσολομύτης http://myria.math.aegean.gr/lds/web/
  22. ἱστότοπος Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/publications.html
  23. ἱστότοπος Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/lectures.html
  24. ἱστότοπος Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/the-origin-of-the-universe.html
  25. ἱστότοπος Stephen Hawking, A brief history of time, http://www.hawking.org.uk/the-beginning-of-time.html
  26. Ἱστότοπος NASA https://www.nasa.gov/
  27. ἱστότοπος NASA http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-powered-the-big-bang/
  28. ἱστότοπος http://www.big-bang-theory.com/
  29. ἱστότοπος https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Κρίσιμο_σημεῖο_(θερμοδυναμικὴ) καὶ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_point

Σύντομον βιογραφικὸν σημείωμα
Συνταγματάρχης ἐ.ἀ. τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ Στρατοῦ (1967-1993), ἀπόφοιτος τῆς σχολῆς Μηχανολόγων Ἠλεκτρολόγων τοῦ Εθνικοῦ Μετσοβείου Πολυτεχνείου (1973-1977), Master of Scienece in Computer Science of Naval Postgraduate School – CA U.S.A. (1981-1983), σύμβουλος πληροφορικῆς ΕΛΤΑ (1993-1994), προϊστάμενος τῆς Εὐρωπαϊκῆς Τεχνικῆς ὁμάδος τοῦ Σένγκεν (Schengen) (1995-2003), ὑπεύθυνος ἐκπαιδεύσεως ἀσφαλείας ἠλεκτρονικῶν ὑπολογιστῶν τοῦ Συμβουλίου τῆς Εὐρωπαϊκῆς Ἐνώσεως (2003-2011).



























The Big Bang theory according to Theogony by Hesiod
By Ioannis Karadimitropoulos
Summary
The creation of the universe has always fascinated civilisations including the Hellenic one. The small amount of ancient Hellenic literature that has been preserved is enough to initiate our comprehension into our ancestors’ way of thinking. Mystic Hesiod, in his epic poem Theogony, describes in a few verses the facts concerning the creation of the universe.
Astrophysicists consider that our universe has been created as a result of the Big Bang of a highly condensed and over-warmed singularity. Since then the universe is ever expanding.
By making use of a mystical approach and spiritual analysis it is possible to relate the modern theories on astrophysics to verses 116-128 of Hesiod’s Theogony. Hesiod presents his knowledge to his contemporaries as well as to future generations in a “philotis” (friendly) manner. Hesiod himself notes that he wrote Theogony under the divine direction and narration of Muses, the daughters of Zeus, father of all Gods and Humans.
1         Introduction
Out of all the scientific theories concerning the creation of universe, a widely accepted one amongst astrophysicists is known as the Big Bang theory[1]. In his epic poem Theogony, Hesiod presents poetically the creation of universe. The similarities between astrophysics and Theogony, concerning the events that took place during the Big Bang, exceed the limits of simple coincidence and challenge us to be open minded.
The description of universe’s creation in Theogony starts in verse 116. Verses 1 to 115 describe firstly, the sacred rite of aquatic purification of Muses, secondly, the hymning of Gods and finally, upon Zeus’ request, the initiation of Hesiod into the Apollonian arts of music and poetry so that, being divinely inspired, to hymn and narrate both the past and the future.
Hesiod is considered on the one hand, the second most important epic poet of antiquity and on the other hand to have derived his topics from imagination as well as experience. Not even Homer has escaped the characterisation of being a falsehood narrator, despite the fact that archaeology and other sciences prove his poems’ narrations truthful.
2         The true meaning of the word “Myth”
The deliberation that Hesiod refers to non-real events directs us to place special emphasis on the difference, in both meaning and notion, of the words “μῦθος-[mythos] (myth)” and “παρα-μύθιον-[para-mythion] (fairy tale)”. Modern science and common opinion consider both words as synonymous to narration of facts that are either non true or born by the author’s imagination. On the contrary, the lexicon of Liddle & Scott distinguishes the meanings of these words and interprets παραμύθιον ([paramythion]-fairy tale): as exhortation, consoling or hortatory stories and Μῦθος ([mythos]-myth): whatever is narrated verbally, including history, regardless of being true or false.
By not understanding the correct meaning of the word myth one yields to misconception, misunderstanding and rejection of preserved truths such as the Trojan War, the Minoans and Mycenaean civilizations.
The truth exists in the core of every myth. Considering the words myth and paramyth as having identical meanings, one frames an unreasoning reason (παρά-λογον λόγον), a misjudged judgement (παρα-φρονούσης φρονήσεως), a misconceived conception (παρα-νοοῦντος νοῦ) and a counterfeiter (παρα-χαράκτου) of truth.
3         Elements of the Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang theory accepts that the universe has a starting point[2] that is considered to have taken place 13.7 milion years ago. Before that start there was no space, mass, time, energy. During the beginning there was a very high density and high temperature stage, a singularity[3] that exploded or, according to others, expanded[4], unrolling the universe. The explosion’s or expansion’s products started staving off each other and since then universe is ever expanding[5]. Evidence of the Big Bang is considered to be the existence, in the visible universe, of huge quantities of the “light elements[6] hydrogen and helium as well as the discovery of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation which is thought to be the remnant of the singularity’s heat. That discovery earned astrophysicists Arno Perzias and Robert Wilson[7] a quarter each of the 1978 Nobel Prize. As far as the creation of space is concerned, Stephen Hawcking with George Ellis[8] and Roger Penrose[9] extended the General Relativity theory and in years 1968 and 1979 published their works claiming the singularity did not appear in space but rather space began inside the singularity.
The view that space was created within the singularity rather opposes the Aristotelian logic of “cause and effect”, which induces that the singularity, regardless of its smallness, occupies an infinitesimal but still some space.
Until future scientific announcements prove otherwise, astrophysics reserves its opinion and replies “I do not know[10] to the following questions: what is the origin of the singularity? What is its nature? Why was it created? Where was it created?
Furthermore, science developed the concept of the necessary and sufficient condition in order to achieve a specific result.
For an explosion to take place, the “necessary” condition consists of the coexistence of a) space within which the explosion will take place, b) mass to be exploded and c) catalyst to trigger the process of the explosion, while the “sufficient“ condition consists of the existence of the appropriate state of affairs like mass density, pressure and temperature.
4         Interpretation of Theogony’s verses
Hesiod, without violating the Aristotelian logic of “cause-effect” describes not only the necessary and sufficient conditions for an explosion to take place, but also the results of the explosion till nowadays.
4.1         Necessary condition for the Big Bang
The necessary condition for the Big Bang is described in Theogony as follows:

  • coming into being of space: First of all Chaos came into being. But then v. 116
  • coming into being of mass Gaia broad-chested, always the unshakable seat of all v. 117
  • coming into being of catalyst and Eros, the most beautiful among the immortal gods, v. 120
dismemberer for all Gods and humans                                Theog.. v. 121


Hesiod chooses the words and presents the facts in a way that cannot be considered as coincidence, as presented below.
4.1.1       First of all Chaos came into being
Hesiod selects the word “primary” (πρώτιστα-[prootista]) and not “in the beginning” (ἐν ἀρχῇ-[en archee]) as used by other texts referring to cosmogony. The word “ἀρχὴ-[archee]” etymologically is originated by the verb «ἄρχω-[archoo]» (to rule, to govern) and is interpreted as “ἔναρξις-[enarxis]” (starting). Usual uses of the word “archee (beginning)” are found in mathematics like “we define point A as the beginning of a line segment, of a circle’s periphery, as well as in daily expressions like: “beginning of a street, time period, conversation etc.” Furthermore, Basil, the father of Christian Orthodox religion writes[11]:
Because by nature, the beginning extends itself both sides, …
And in the next paragraph:
There was a stage older than the one of the universe’s creation that was appropriate to the supernatural powers, the ones beyond time, the eternal, the non-visible.
Therefore, both the usual use and the theological meanings of the word “beginning (ἀρχὴ-[archee])” cannot and do not indicate the moment the universe began.
The word “primarily (πρώτιστα-[prootista])” is the superlative form of the word “πρῶτος-[prootos] (first)” and expresses the ultimate first. In that sense, this is the only word that can accurately mark the moment universe began. At the same time, the word indicates that nothing existed before that moment.
Remarkable is also the meaning of the word “γένετ’[ο] ({geneto[o]}-took place)” that etymologically comes from the verb “γίγνομαι ([gignomai]-become)” and is interpreted as “be born” for humans (passive voice), “be produced” for things (middle & passive voice) and “coming into being” for happenings (active voice).
It is concluded therefore that, since Chaos is not human nor a thing has neither been born nor produced. Chaos came into being primarily. The lexicon of Liddell-Scott presents the nature of Chaos as “the first state of universe”, as infinite space, infinite area, in general as infinite. The word Chaos etymologically comes from the verb “χάσκω ([chaskoo]-gape), χαίνω ([chainoo]-yawn)”. Therefore, Chaos is the gap and consequently the space.
Hesiod characterizes Chaos as “Ζοφερὸν ([zoferon]-dusky)”:
dwell the Titans on the other side of pitch-dark Chaos.[12] Theog. v. 814
4.1.2       Immediately after Gaia broad-chested
Immediately after Chaos, the broad-chested Gaia came into being, the mass, the “singularity”. Orpheus uses  numerous epithets in the hymn “To Gee every seed’s fumigation[13]”, like Goddess, mother, all-nurturing, bringing fulfilment, destroyer of all, promoting growth, yielding fruits, bursting good time…Instead of using one of them, Hesiod chooses the epithet “broad-chested”. Why? There are various possible interpretations for this. We adopt the following view.
The chest protects the two main organs of life that is: lungs and heart. Consequently, the broad- chested Gaia encompasses and protects universe’s generative organs. Being generative Gaia is by nature:
Gaia broad-chested, always the unshakable seat of all Theog. v.. 117 the immortals who hold the peaks of snowy Olympus, Theog. v. 118 and dark Tartaros in the recesses of the wide-wayed chtoon, Theog. v. 119
4.1.3       After Eros came into being… dismemberer
After Chaos and Gaia follows the genesis of the catalyst, the “λυσιμελὴς-[lysimelis] dismember” Eroos who is not the archer son of Aphrodite and Hares.
According to Liddell-Scott, “λυσιμελὴς-(lysimelis)” is epithet of Hypnos and is translated as “dismemberer”. At that moment of the creation, only Chaos and Gaia were in existence. Therefore, Eroos could only act as dismemberer to them.
4.1.4     Completion of the necessary condition for the explosion
The first system has been formed. Chaos, Gaia and Eros are present. According to thermodynamics, the created system contains specific energy that depends only on its state and not on the way the system arrived to that state. The energy situation of that system is described in verse 700.
divine ineffable heat (Καῦμα [kavma]) occupied Chaos Θεογ. στ. 700 Καῦμα: burning heat (Liddell-Scott).
4.2         Gaia, chthoon: two distinct amongst them entities
Gaia broad-chested, chthoon wide-wayed. It is worth noting Hesiod’s way of writing the words “Γαῖα-Gaia” (24 repetitions), “γαῖα-gaia” (27 repetitions), “Γῆ-Gee” (once), “γῆ-gee” (8 repetitions) and “χθὼν-chthoon” (18 repetitions).
The use of majuscule and miniscule in writing the words does not indicate any mistake or omission. We strongly oppose to the conventional science that considers those words as synonyms. We keep our own point of view for the meaning of the word “Γῆ-Gee”, the analysis of which is beyond the objectives of this presentation.
Hesiod places the humans on chthoon:
Oath who, for most men on chthoon…. Theog. v.231 From then on, for the immortals the tribes of men on chthoon Theog. v.556 to the ash trees for mortal men who dwell on chthoon Theog. v.564 Gaia and chthoon are two distinct entities and the wide-wayed chthoon is always seating stably on broad-chested Gaia.
5         The sufficient condition for the explosion
The rod-map towards the sufficient condition for the explosion is described in Theogony as follows:
ü action of Chaos                                                 genesis of Erebus and dark Night
From Chaos came into being Erebus and dark Night·   Theog. v. 123
ü action of Erebus and Night                              genesis of Ether and Day
From Night came into being Ether and Day,                  Theog. v. 124
ü in which way did genesis happened?              mixture in philotis.
after she was mixed in philotis with Erebus.                  Theog. v. 125
Of utmost importance is the understanding of the meaning of the word “φιλότης-philotees” (friendship, love, affection according to Liddle & Scott) as figure of speech. Systematically, Hellenes as well as foreign scholars and translators of Theogony attribute the word philotis as erotic act in the 25 out of the 26 repetitions of the word. The only potential exception is the verse:
Then she bore Deceit and Philotis Theog. v. 224 The lexicon of Liddell-Scott gives to the word philotis the notion of erotic act only “…in erotic relationship between man and woman…”
Instead, we interpret Philotis and mainly “mixture in philotis” as the “sufficient condition” for achieving a specific result. This connection between the concepts of “philotis” and “sufficient condition” is firstly, not in line with the dominating view concerning the word “philotis” and secondly, not given by the lexicon. However, our interpretation is strongly in line with the concept of metaphor of the Hellenic language’s figures of speech.
Barren translations would lead to paralogous syllogisms. For instance:
Ø  “the situation is pregnant and risks to explode [κατάστασις ἐγκυμονοῦσα κινδύνους]” = situation that has been in sexual intercourse!
Ø  “this is born by the imagination [ἀποκύημα φαντασίας]” = imagination that has been in sexual intercourse!
Barren translation implies annulation of the figures of speech of the language, and especially of poesy. One would then wonder what would be point in analysing poems!
5.1         Thermodynamics – mixture in philotis
Thermodynamics provide an excellent example of “mixture in philotis” (as shown in figure 1).
Figure 1: typical phase diagram[3]. The solid green line applies to most substances; the dotted green line depicts the anomalous behaviour of water.Ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις ὡς εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου4
Target:       Stable coexistence of water’s phases: solid, liquid and gas.
Necessary: existence of the three phases.
Sufficient: mixture in philotis of pressure and temperature yields to the triple point where the three phases coexist in stability.
·    Beyond that point solid, liquid and gas phases stop coexisting.
·    Pressure and temperature do mix but not in philotis for the defined target.
 
5.2         Action of Chaos
The wheel of creation starts moving. The sufficient condition for the explosion begins to be formed. In the presence of dismemberer Eroos, Chaos acts first and brings Erebus and dark Night into existence. Erebus is not characterised by any epithet whereas Night is characterised as “dark-μέλαινα-[melaina]”, “gloomy (δνοφερὴ-[dnoferee])” and “Erebus-like (ἐρεβεννὴ-[erevennee])”
from gloomy Night and those whom salty Pontos bore. theog. v. 107 From Chaos were born Erebos and dark Night· theog. v. 123 without having slept with any of the Gods the Erebus-like Night theog. v. 213 “Γῆ-Gee” is also characterised as gloomy while Gaia is not.
of gloomy night and murky Tartaros theog. v. 807
5.3         Action of Erebus and Night being mixed in philotiti
Initially, the Night moves from the gloomy and erebus-like states towards the dark one (see figure 2).
The wheel of production keeps moving. Erebus, in the presence of dismemberer Eroos, is mixed in philotis with Night and brings Ether and Day into existence, entities that are hymned by Orpheus as well.
Figure 2: the road map towards the completion of the sufficient condition
Ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις ὡς εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου5
 
From Erebus (absolute blackness) we gradually arrive to the Day (absolute light).
Day is the light that is the production of heat, and ultimately is the sufficient condition for the explosion.
The then universe is on fire! The necessary and sufficient condition for the explosion is met. Necessary and sufficient coexist. Necessary: Chaos, Gaia, Eroos. Sufficient: the ineffable heat of Chaos, the genesis of Day.
6         The big bang takes place
The Big Bang is described in Theogony as follows:
Gaia first brought into existence the     equal to herself starry Uranus Theog. v. 126 Verse 127 describes the scientifically proven ever expansion of Uranus
Starry Uranus, so that he covers everything, Θεογ. στ. 127 Only one entity, Gaia, brings into being the equal to herself starry Uranus whose mission is to cover everything. Therefore:
Gaia = starry Uranus
In that equation one can see the principle of energy conservation, that science named thousands of years later as “first law of thermodynamics”.
An idea about the noise of the explosion is given in verse 703.
Such a loud (δοῦπος [doupos]) sound would arise (ὀρώρει [oroorei]), Θεογ. στ. 703 Liddel-Scott: δοῦπος-[doupos]: any dead, heavy sound, thudding. ὀρώρει-[oroorei]: from the verb ὄρνυμι-[ornymi] = make to arise, call forth.
Hesiod in Theogony describes the first and later entities that came into being by Gaia. Within the starry Uranus the life-death circle never stopped existing. Astrophysicists know that the circle of creation-death of stars still goes on and therefore Gaia continues acting in the presence of dismemberer Eroos. Jan Pierre Vernant in his book «L’univers, les dieux, les hommes» explains why the castration of Uranus signals the liberation of natural forces, the beginning of movement and therefore of time as well as the eternal bearing of children via the birth of Aphrodite.
The inexorable Χρόνος [time] (Κρόνος [Saturn]) keeps on eating his own children.
6.1         Graphics showing the Big Bang according to Hesiod (image 3)
Figure 3: The road map to Big Bang according to Hesiod
Ἡ Μεγάλη Ἔκρηξις ὡς εἰς τὴν Θεογονίαν τοῦ Ἡσιόδου6
7        Source of knowledge of the shepherd Hesiod
The aforementioned are described by a shepherd. Indeed, it is oxymoron on one hand the social class and on the other hand the accomplishments as well as the geographical knowledge of Hesiod in an era when even the trip from one village to the next was considered as living abroad!
The shepherd has profound knowledge, while avoiding paradoxes and preposterous descriptions in his verses concerning the creation of universe. He does not violate the “cause-effect” principle, and describes the genesis of the necessary and sufficient condition for the Big Bang.
To the reasonable question: whence this knowledge? The reply is given by Hesiod himself. Inspired by the Muses of Helicon! Theog. v. 32
8         The dilemma
Having said that, we are in front of the following dilemma: Should we believe and consider Hesiod as divinely inspired or should we reject him as being an uneducated, fanciful and untruthful shepherd? To this dilemma responds the position of the father of Christianity Chrysostom which is presented below in a philotis modified version. We copy from the prologue of the Old Testament, pg 7, Panagiotis Tzelatis, publ. Paraskevas Leonis, 1892:
If one of the simplest human beings that is non-initiated into the Theogony (orthodox theology), does not understand the meaning of a topic while reading, he should blame himself for not being able to understand the truth Muses (God) spoke. The reason of the reader’s misunderstanding is his own imperfection, and not the fact that Muses (God) spoke unclearly or incompletely; be initiated (lead away)! The complete Theogony (holy bible), given its divine origin, is speaking the truth.
9         Etymology of Uranus
We strongly believe the mission of Uranus (Οὐρανὸς) “to cover everything” allows us to consider that etymologically Οὐρανὸς is formed by the prefix “ουρ- [our-]“ (far away) and the verb “ἄνω-[anoo]” (going through, move towards the end).
Indeed, Uranus is very far, going through everything, as he moves towards the end of the infinite universe. Uranus extends beyond the limits of human vision and technology and probably extends even further beyond human imagination. Uranus expands; who knows the space and time limits for the expansion to cover everything.
10        Conclusion – Hesiod the mystic
Hesiod enjoys the glory of being the second poet of antiquity but at the same time is considered an unworthy fanciful.
According to our point of view, Hesiod is an important, knowledgeable and initiated figure for his era. He modified his knowledge with philotis to present it to his contemporaries as well as to future generations.
Hesiod’s description cannot be simple coincidences or products of the ever unrestrained and creative imagination of Hellenes. Hesiod does not derive the topics from his imagination. Being initiated and with divine order, he describes in Theogony the creation of the Universe as viewed by the modern Big Bang Theory.
Unfortunately for the mankind, the knowledge of Hellenes sages did not profit frοm a scientific continuity and remained unknown for centuries. It has been abused unmercifully even by those that have suckled on Hellenic literature. Knowledge has been teared into pieces. The student of Livanios and later father of Christianity, Basileios, writes[4]:
Hellenes philosophers have said too much about nature, and none of their words stayed steady and stable since a second philosopher has always turned against the opinion of the first one. Therefore there is no need for us to judge their work. It is enough that one was rejecting the opinion of the other.
The few preserved documents of our ancestors are full of knowledge. The giants of human intellectuality continuously contribute knowledge that can address the concerns of humankind. The Socratian midwifery allows filtering the literature of our ancestors in order to dig out and understand the unearthly truths!
11         Epilogue
The acceptance or rejection Hesiod’s assertion concerning his “divine word” lies upon the judgment and degree of initiation of each one of us.
The presented connection of Theogony’s verses to the data of modern astrophysics is not divinely inspired but the result of thoughtful study.
Other opinions are possible and welcome.
In conclusion we cannot imagine:
⇒ Chthoon and Uranus mixing in hostility.
⇒Chthoon not desiring the rain, not being “pregnant” by it, not rain-producing.
⇒ Chthoon’s uterus producing nourishment in the absence of Uranus’ rain.
Bibliography:
  1. Theogony by Hesiod, original ancient text
  2. Theogony by Hesiod, Stavros and Aggelos Vlachos
  3. Theogony by Hesiod, site https://msu.edu/~tyrrell/theogon.pdf
  4. Theogony by Hesiod, site http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hesiod/theogony.htm
  5. The universe in a nutshell, Stephen Hawking, publication Katoptron, 2001
  6. The Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and the Existence of Singularities in our Universe, Steven W. Hawking, George F.R. Ellis, Astrophysical Journal, 152, (1968) pp. 25-36.
  7. The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology, Steven W. Hawking, Roger Penrose, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, series A, 314 (1970) pp. 529-548. Web site http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/
  8.  L’univers, les dieux, les hommes, Jan Pierre Vernant, Paris, 1999
  9. Les Origines de la pensée grecque, Jan Pierre Vernant, Paris, 1962
  10.  Mythe et religion en Grèce ancienne, Jan Pierre Vernant, Paris, 1990
  11.  Speech to the six days of creation, Vasilios father of Christianity.
  12. Against Greeks, Athanasios father of Christianity.
  13. Old Testament according to 70, 1892, chapter Genesis.
  14.  Apollonius Tyaneus, Filostratos
  15.   The Orphic Hymns, Ἰωάννου Πασσᾶ, ἐκδ. Ἥλιος,
  16. The Orphic Hymns, Supreme Council of Ethinkoi Hellenes, 2001, Dr. Andreas Tsolomitis, Aegean University.
  17. The Orphic Hymns, by Thomas Taylor, London, MDCCCXCVI (1896)
  18. Web site «Ancient Hellenic Language and Literature» www.greek-language.gr
  19. Web site Lexigram www.lexigram.gr
  20. Web site LSJ: THESAURUS LINGUAE GRAECAE The Online Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon http://stephanus.tlg.uci.edu/lsj/#eid=1&context=lsj
  21. Web site lexicon Liddell & Scott Koonstantinidou, Aegian University, Section of Mathematics, prof. Andreas Papasalouros, Antoonios Tsolomytees, web site http://myria.math.aegean.gr/lds/web/
  22. Web site Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/publications.html
  23. Web site Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/lectures.html
  24. Web site Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/the-origin-of-the-universe.html
  25. Web site Stephen Hawking, A brief history of time, http://www.hawking.org.uk/the-beginning-of-time.html
  26.   Web site NASA https://www.nasa.gov/
  27. ἱστότοπος NASA http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-powered-the-big-bang/
  28. ἱστότοπος http://www.big-bang-theory.com/
  29. ἱστότοπος  https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Κρίσιμο_σημεῖο_(θερμοδυναμικὴ) καὶ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_point


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